Creating a Kidney in Vitro: 20 Years of Experimental Efforts

Genetic experimentation has made impressive advancements in the past 20 years. In 1996 the Nishinakamura laboratory began experimenting with Xenopus frogs because of its powerful combination of experimental tractability and close evolutionary relationship with humans. The animal cap, which is a small part of blastula stage Xenopus embryos, can be differentiated into several types of …